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  1. Triathletes will often perform their swim sessions in the morning. Pool availability and access to swim coaches and squads will probably be the main reason for the early morning sessions. Recent research from the University of Western Australia suggests that triathletes may benefit from performing their swimming training in the afternoon after more strenuous morning sessions. The researchers recruited nine well-trained male triathletes for the study. The triathletes all had VO2max values of ~72.3 ml/min/kg, indicating that these were elite level athletes. The study aimed to determine if water-based active recovery (a low-intensity swimming session) was more effective than passive recovery (rest) in improving recovery and subsequent performance following a high-intensity interval training session. The triathletes underwent two performance tests separated by 24 hours. The first test was a maximal incremental (VO2max; peak treadmill speed) test performed on a treadmill and the second was a 1 km swimming time trial. The data collected from these initials performance tests was used to set the intensity of the training and active recovery sessions that followed. The participants arrived at the laboratory early in the morning and followed a standardised warm up procedure, which consisted of 5 minutes of running at 60% of their peak treadmill velocity. This was followed with 5 minutes of stretching. The high-intensity interval training session consisted of eight 3 minute running intervals at 90% of their peak treadmill speed with 1 minute rest between each. The participants cooled down with 5 minutes of running at 60% of their peak treadmill speed. The triathletes then returned to the laboratory after 10 hours and either performed a low-intensity swimming session or watched television for an hour. The study had a cross-over design, which means that the athletes received both treatments in a randomised order. The athletes gave a subjective rating of their fatigue upon their return to the laboratory. The active recovery session consisted of four sets of 5 x 100 m freestyle at 85 – 90% of the triathletes’ 1 km time trial speed. The work to rest ratio of the repetitions was 3:1 and a 2 minute rest was allowed between each set. The following day the athletes returned to the laboratory, where they were required to run until exhaustion at 90% of their peak treadmill speed. The triathletes were able to run, on average, 102 seconds longer following the active recovery swim performed the previous day. Interestingly, there were no differences in the triathletes’ perceptions of recovery following the active or passive recovery. The proposed benefit of a water-based active recovery session could be related to the hydrostatic pressure of the water, which has been suggested to speed up recovery. The findings of this research study suggest that there may be a benefit to including a water-based active recovery session following an intense workout in the morning. Triathletes should consider afternoon swim sessions following big sessions on the bike or run in order to enhance recovery. For those of you who are interested, the paper is available at the following link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19908172 Till next time. About the author:Benoit Capostagno completed his BSc degree (cum laude) specialising in the Sport Sciences at the University of Stellenbosch in 2006. He continued his studies at the University of Cape Town’s Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine completing his honours with a first class pass in 2007. He is continuing his postgraduate work with his PhD at this same unit and is investigating training adaptation and fatigue in cyclists. He has been a consultant with the Sports Science Institute of South Africa’s High Performance Centre’s Cycling Division since 2009. In addition, Ben has been an active cycling coach with Science to Sport since 2010.
  2. In our article last week, we spoke about the proposed benefit of compression garments to enhance recovery following an intense cycling test. We are sticking to the recovery theme this week, but we are changing exercise modes and athletes. Triathletes are challenged to improve their performances in three different exercise modes. In order to achieve this they will often perform more than one session in a single day and often train in two modes of exercise (swimming, cycling and running). Click here to view the article
  3. Cyclists are often required to compete over a period several days and the level of recovery can often determine a rider’s performance. Compression garments have become increasingly popular in different sporting codes as a potential mechanism to enhance recovery. The use of compression during sporting activities is also becoming more popular; however the effect of compression during sport is still unclear. Early studies seem to suggest that ‘explosive sports’ may benefit from the use of compression, but there is little evidence supporting their use endurance activities. The study was well-designed and included a placebo trial Researchers from Lincoln University in Christchurch, New Zealand recently investigated the effect of lower body compression garments on subsequent cycling time trial performance. The study was well-designed and included a placebo trial, where the participants received a ‘bogus’ treatment. The placebo trial involved a non-compressive garment, which had similar material properties to the compression garment. In order to assist in ‘blinding’ the cyclists to which of the treatments they were receiving, the researchers informed the cyclists that the purpose of the study was to compare the effect of two types of compression garments. This way, the cyclists always thought they were receiving a compression garment.The study had a single-blind crossover design, which means that the researchers knew which treatment the cyclists were getting, but the cyclists did not. The cyclists also received both treatments following a one week wash out period and the order of the treatments was randomised. The effect of the compression garments was measured by asking the cyclists to complete two 40 km Time Trials (40km TT) separated by 24 hours of recovery. During the 24 hour recovery period, the cyclists wore either the compression or placebo garments for the full 24 hour recovery period, before repeating the 40km TT. The garment was put on after the first TT and removed before the second TT. The compression garment used in this particular study was the Skins full-leg lower body (hip to ankle) compression garment. The 40km TT is regarded as a valid measure of cycling performance, which adds weight to the results of the study. The cyclists were asked to maintain a steady level of training during the study and kept detailed logbooks of their diets to ensure that these two factors did not influence their performances. a clear benefit to wearing a compression garment The results of the study showed a clear benefit to wearing a compression garment during the 24 hour recovery period following strenuous cycling. The 40km TT time and average power output was higher following the compression trial compared to the placebo trial. The researchers analysed the 40km TT performance further by examining the average power output during four 10km splits during the TT. The compression garments produced consistently higher average power outputs during the entire TT.This is significant, because it shows that the improvement following the compression intervention was not due to an initially higher power output, but rather a consistently improved performance. If you would like to read the article yourself, you can find it in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 480 – 486. At the High Performance Centre, we always ask ourselves how we apply research to our athletes. The results of this particular study seem to support the use of compression garments following intense cycling as a way to improve recovery and subsequent performance. If you have had a particularly hard session on the bike and you do not want your subsequent training quality to be effected, then it appears that the use of compression garments may aid in improving recovery. In addition, with multi-stage racing becoming increasingly more popular, compression garments may be a useful tool to use daily to enhance recovery and performance for the remaining stages. About the author:Benoit Capostagno completed his BSc degree (cum laude) specialising in the Sport Sciences at the University of Stellenbosch in 2006. He continued his studies at the University of Cape Town’s Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine completing his honours with a first class pass in 2007. He is continuing his postgraduate work with his PhD at this same unit and is investigating training adaptation and fatigue in cyclists. He has been a consultant with the Sports Science Institute of South Africa’s High Performance Centre’s Cycling Division since 2009. In addition, Ben has been an active cycling coach with Science to Sport since 2010.
  4. On Monday night, the Discovery High Performance Centre of the Sports Science Institute of South Africa held a workshop on “Recovery strategies to enhance performance”. One of the techniques discussed was the use of lower-leg compression garments to speed up recovery. In this week’s article we will dissect the findings of a recently published study, which examined the effect of lower body compression garments on subsequent cycling performance. Click here to view the article
  5. There are an infinite number of methods used to structure tapers. In addition, there are both intra- and inter-individual responses to different tapering protocols and coaches and athletes often use a trial and error approach to determine which tapering protocol is best suited to a specific athlete. However, based on previous scientific research examining the effectiveness of tapering on subsequent endurance performance, the optimal tapering period should be between 8 – 14 days. The preceding training load is a big determinant on the structure of the taper. Elite endurance athletes are generally exposed to larger training loads than recreational level athletes. Therefore, elite athletes might begin their taper two weeks before the event, while most recreational athletes will only require a taper of one week. It is important to note that ALL athletes, no matter what level they compete at, will benefit from the inclusion on a taper. When we begin working with a new athlete we firstly set up an annual plan that allows us to design their training program. The annual plan consists of all the events that the athlete is planning on competing in in that year and this allows us to structure how the training volume and intensity will change over the year to ensure that the athlete is in the best possible shape for their target events. Most of the athletes will compete in more than one event per year and we will therefore include multiple tapers throughout the season. This allows us to ‘experiment’ with different lengths of tapers and ensure that we have a sound strategy as we approach a ‘goal’ event. Depending on the importance of the event and where it fits in in the training cycle, we might not include a taper at all, but rather use the race as a training session. Other events will have short tapers (~3 days) in order to flush out most of the acute fatigue from the preceding training weeks. When the athlete is approaching a target event, we will use a two-week taper where we decrease the volume of the training, but keep the intensity at a moderate to high level. The high intensity is required to ensure that the athlete does not lose the training induced adaptations. A typical pre-race (taper) week will look like this: Day 1: REST – NO exercise! Day 2: 1.5 – 2 hour easy ride at a LOW intensity and high cadence (>90 RPM) Day 3: REST – NO exercise! Day 4: Warm up for 30 minutes at a LOW intensity. Follow this with 4 x 4 minute intervals at an intensity corresponding to your functional (lactate) threshold. Rest (ride easy) for 10 minutes between each of the 4 minute intervals. Cool down for 30 minutes. Day 5: REST – NO exercise! Day 6: 1.5 – 2 hours easy ride at a LOW intensity with 5 x 2 minute accelerations to bring your heart rate up to your functional threshold for last 30 seconds of each acceleration (Use relatively hard gear and moderate cadence (70-80 RPM). Rest 5 min between each of the accelerations. Day 7: Race day During the taper period, your training volume will be reduced and therefore you may need to adjust your nutrient intake to prevent weight gain. However, we do not recommend that you avoid any of macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, fat and protein) during this period, but rather adjust the quantities appropriately. Some symptoms of getting the taper wrong include ‘sluggish’ legs. Failure to keep the intensity up during the taper could result in feelings of tired or ‘sleepy’ legs. Athletes will mention that it took their legs a while to ‘wake up’. In addition, if the training load is too high during the taper or before the taper, fatigue could still be present on race day and this will obviously have a negative effect on performance, especially at the higher intensities. About the author:Benoit Capostagno completed his BSc degree (cum laude) specialising in the Sport Sciences at the University of Stellenbosch in 2006. He continued his studies at the University of Cape Town’s Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine completing his honours with a first class pass in 2007. He is continuing his postgraduate work with his PhD at this same unit and is investigating training adaptation and fatigue in cyclists. He has been a consultant with the Sports Science Institute of South Africa’s High Performance Centre’s Cycling Division since 2009. In addition, Ben has been an active cycling coach with Science to Sport since 2010.
  6. Tapering is a training strategy that allows endurance athletes to achieve peak performance for major competitions. Manipulating both the volume and the intensity of the training during the taper allows the athletes to flush out any fatigue without losing training induced adaptations. Click here to view the article
  7. Whatever performance means to you, if you put the time in to your training, you want to see results. One of the first steps when planning your training, is to decide on your goals. Understanding the demands of the event will help with formulating realistic goals and designing a structured training programme. Once you know what the event requires, you can design a programme which aims to improve the specific characteristics which have been identified to be crucial for success. This could mean targeting specific weaknesses that need to be improved, while simultaneously maintaining or improving on stronger areas. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is the most effective way to improve your anaerobic capacity. There are a variety of disciplines within cycling, each with their own specific demands. Olympic Cross-Country (XCO) events are physically demanding and tax both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. XCO events are generally more intense than their Cross-Country Marathon (XCM) counterparts and success in this discipline requires the ability to sustain high-intensities (>90% of maximum heart rate) for between 1 – 2 hours. XCO is characterised by large variations in power output caused by steep climbs, technical single-track descents and open jeep-track sections. Anaerobic power and high power-to-weight ratios have repeatedly been shown to be important determinants of XCO race performance. Anaerobic power is improved by exercising at intensities above your functional or ‘lactate’ threshold. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is the most effective way to improve your anaerobic capacity. Despite the variable power outputs, heart rate remains fairly stable during an XCO race. The proposed reasons for this paradox are the constant contractions in the upper and lower body musculature that are required for stability and shock absorption during racing. Therefore, including strength work that targets both the upper and lower body could assist with XCO performance.Road races and Cross-Country Marathons (XCM) are mass start events with a total distance of at least 60 kilometres and are approximately 3 hours or more in duration. These events have fewer large fluctuations in power output, but are still completed at a relatively high intensity (~80 % of maximum heart rate), which means that these races require a well-developed aerobic and anaerobic energy system. However, the aerobic energy system has a bigger role to play when compared to shorter events like XCO races. This often leads to the common misconception that performance in longer events will not benefit from the inclusion of high-intensity interval training (HIT). However, the ability to perform high-intensity efforts could mean the difference between breaking away on the final climb to take the win or making it home to avoid the cut-off in a stage of the Epic. stay off your feet as much as possible to maximise your recovery In general, multi-stage racing will have the same physiological requirements as those of XCM and road races. The only real difference is that you will be required to wake up the next day and do it all again. Therefore day-to-day recovery between stages is important for stage races, especially during the longer versions (Cape Epic and Panorama Tour). The best way to stay on top of this, is to ensure that you have your nutrition dialled and stay off your feet as much as possible to maximise your recovery. (Stay tuned for an article on recovery strategies to enhance performance).The gravity assisted disciplines of downhill (DH) and Enduro racing require riders to have high levels of technical ability, explosive power to accelerate out of corners and on flat sections, and probably one or two loose screws. Similar to XCO racing, heart rate during timed DH runs remains high and stable, despite the variation in power output and the fact that the pedals are only turning for about 50 % of the run. DH includes periods of high cadence (>130 RPM), with the highest values usually recorded at the start as the riders leave the start gate. Similarly, peak power outputs during a DH run are observed in the first 5 – 10 seconds of the run as the riders attempt to reach maximum speed as quickly as possible. DH and Enduro are unique in that the riders are required to generate power outputs suddenly and the events are characterised by a combination of acceleration and deceleration efforts. The timing of these efforts will be governed by the course design and profile with some courses having long pedalling sections (Pietermaritzburg), and others being very steep and technical (Champery, Switzerland). As a result, successful DH riders will require a high anaerobic capacity which will allow them to accelerate from a standing start and slow speeds. However, those who are unable to generate the explosive power required to have a fast start could minimise their time losses by avoiding unnecessary braking and poor line selection. Riding dynamics, such as line selection and ‘flow’, have in fact been suggested as important determinants of DH performance. DH also requires isometric and dynamic muscular efforts in order to cope with technical sections and absorb the vibrations experienced while riding over uneven terrain. These muscular contractions will lead to elevated heart rate even when the pedals aren’t turning. mountain bikers may unintentionally neglect skill training as part of their programmes Success in all forms of mountain bike (MTB) racing is also highly dependent on a rider’s skill level, with highly skilled riders tending to lose less speed as they pass through technical sections such as rock gardens. Differences in level of technical ability and tolerance for risk have been suggested to be the reason for the variation in lap times in both XCO and DH riders. Although this seems logical, mountain bikers may unintentionally neglect skill training as part of their programmes so keep an eye out for skills clinics in your area to assist in improving your technical abilities.The different disciplines within cycling all have very specific physiological demands. Failure to understand the demands of the event could result in gaps in your training and failure to achieve your goals so your training should be specific to the discipline or event you are planning to take part in. Sadly, there is no one-size fits all programme for these different disciplines or a single programme which will guarantee success for all individuals. However, there are certain steps you can take to ensure that your training is beneficial and will bring you closer to achieving your goals. No matter your current performance level, or the time you have available to train, intelligent training can result in noticeable gains. Beginners should look at focussing on the areas which will result in the biggest gains while more advanced or experienced riders should focus on refining their training. A well-structured training programme consists of different periods or phases which target specific areas of performance. A well-structured training programme consists of different periods or phases which target specific areas of performance. A programme should begin with very general conditioning sessions aimed at improving general fitness. The volume of training, (time spent on the bike), should reach a maximum early on in the programme and slowly decrease as the intensity of the sessions increases (see the diagram below). Do not make the fatal error of trying to include high volume and high intensity in the same session. In addition, the closer you get to the event, the more specific the training sessions should become to that event. It is often a good idea to include other races as part of the training programme to help sharpen up your fitness and skills.Monitoring training is a great way to keep track of what you have been doing, and identify what has worked for you and what hasn’t. Previously, weekly distance (kilometres covered in training), and hours spent training have been used to quantify training. However, failing to monitor intensity could result in under performance through training too hard or too easy. There are numerous methods to quantify intensity, with the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) being the most simple and affordable. Intensity is rated on a scale of 0 (Rest) to 10 (Maximal effort). RPE has been used with some success, but it is important to be aware of the factors that could influence your perceived exertion. Caffeine, environmental conditions (high-temperature and humidity), and intermittent vs. continuous exercise have been shown to influence RPE. heart rate can be influenced by external factors such as fatigue, environment, caffeine and illness. Alternatively, heart rate has been used to monitor training intensity since the ‘80s and the affordable nature of heart rate monitors has made them common training tools. It is recommended that you perform a maximal incremental exercise test at a recognised sports testing institute to help determine your personal training zones. Training according to specific training zones, which are based on your metabolic and lactate thresholds (LT), will improve both the specificity and quality of your training. You can’t exercise at or above your LT, if you don’t know where it is. Similarly to RPE, heart rate can be influenced by external factors such as fatigue, environment, caffeine and illness. These factors do affect the reliability of heart rate data, but heart rate is still a very effective tool for monitoring training intensity.The most direct measure of cycling intensity, however, is power output. It is not influenced by external factors and cycling is one of only a handful of sports where power output can be measured during both training and racing. Power meters have become increasingly more affordable and, as a result, so their popularity has increased among cyclists of all levels. Using a power meter during training and racing is a great way to monitor not only intensity, but also progression. However, as with any other measure, it is the interpretation of the data which is more important. In summary, different disciplines within cycling all have unique requirements for success and training programmes should target improvements in these unique areas. Training programmes should progress from general conditioning to more specific, high-intensity sessions. Monitoring intensity during training is important for adaptation and heart rate and power are the best measures for monitoring training intensity. About the author:Benoit Capostagno completed his BSc degree (cum laude) specialising in the Sport Sciences at the University of Stellenbosch in 2006. He continued his studies at the University of Cape Town’s Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine completing his honours with a first class pass in 2007. He is continuing his postgraduate work with his PhD at this same unit and is investigating training adaptation and fatigue in cyclists. He has been a consultant with the Sports Science Institute of South Africa’s High Performance Centre’s Cycling Division since 2009. In addition, Ben has been an active cycling coach with Science to Sport since 2010.
  8. The purpose of all the hours we spend training for a specific event is to improve our performance. Depending on your current level of fitness and experience, improvements could mean finishing in the middle of the pack rather than at the back, winning your age category, or taking the top podium position at the elite level. Click here to view the article
  9. How does strength training affect the determinants of endurance performance?Two of the most common methods of strength training are heavy strength training and explosive strength training. Both of these methods can improve endurance performance, but both promote different training adaptations. Heavy strength training is designed to increase or maintain the maximal force that can be produced by the muscles and is typically characterised by lifting loads that allow for 1 – 15 repetitions. Explosive strength training is typically involves accelerating lighter loads (sometimes only body weight) at maximal speeds. One of the most commonly reported ‘predictors’ of endurance performance is maximal oxygen consumption or V̇O2max. Measured in a controlled environment in a laboratory, large V̇O2max values have been associated with success in endurance-based sports. However, it is important to remember that the winner of a race might not be the competitor with the highest V̇O2max. Although there is a large genetic component to determining an athlete’s V̇O2max, it is ‘trainable’ and can improve following well-structured training. Interestingly, there is no evidence to suggest that adding strength training to an endurance athlete’s training programme will increase their V̇O2max more than endurance training alone. Therefore, strength training must improve performance by improving other factors associated with endurance capacity. Economy, the energy cost of movement, is another important determinant of endurance performance. In much the same way as no two cars have the same fuel economy, there are large differences in the exercise economy between athletes, even if their same V̇O2max values are the same. Improvements in exercise economy are likely to be mirrored by improvements in endurance performance. Heavy strength training has been shown to improve economy in recreational level and well-trained cyclists. One study showed an improvement in economy after 3 hours of moderate intensity cycling following a period of heavy strength training. The maximal speed or power output that can be sustained for a prolonged period of time (40 – 60 minutes), is known as the functional or lactate threshold. This threshold intensity has been shown to be extremely useful in predicting endurance performance in cyclists. Data on improvements in functional threshold following strength training, are equivocal. There is some evidence that including heavy strength training will improve this functional threshold, while other studies show no change in this performance parameter. However, it is worth noting that there is no evidence that strength training negatively affected functional threshold. Endurance performance can also be predicted from a cyclist’s peak power output (PPO), which is the intensity associated with their V̇O2max. The inclusion of strength training to cyclists’ training programmes has been shown to improve their PPO and the time they are able to ride at this maximal intensity. However, it is interesting to note that the addition of explosive strength training to cyclists’ training regimes, does not appear to improve their PPO. Performance in mass start races can often be affected by getting into a good position at the start of the race. An Olympic Cross-Country race is a great example of this, with riders fighting it out to be in the front positions when they reach the first single track section. Failure to do so could result in riders getting stuck at bottle necks or behind slower riders. A good start requires riders to generate a high power output for a short period of time. This attribute is not limited to the start and generating high power outputs for relatively short periods of time could allow riders to get passed slower riders, break away in an ultra-marathon or win the sprint in a mass start road race. Heavy strength training has been shown to increase the maximal power output in well-trained cyclists. All of the research on strength training and cycling performance appears to support the inclusion of maximal strength training as part of your training programme. Strength training improves endurance performance by reducing the energy cost of the exercise, delaying fatigue, improving anaerobic capacity and maximal force production. What should you look for in a strength training programme?When including strength training as part of your preparation, it is important to remember to decrease the volume of your endurance training. Simply adding strength training to an already high-volume training regime, may not result in improvements in performance. The strength training exercises should target the muscles groups used in cycling and the movements should be similar to the sport-specific movements of cycling. In cycling, the muscles around the hip, knee and ankle joints are required to work together in order to deliver force to the pedal. Heavy strength training appears to be superior to explosive strength training in improving endurance performance in cyclists. Maximal strength can be increased gradually during the ‘strength’ and ‘base’ phases of your training programme with two sessions per week. Cyclists should try and include multi-joint exercises such as squats, deadlifts or the single-leg versions of these exercises. During more intense phases of training, when strength development is not the main goal, one session of explosive-type strength training should be sufficient to maintain the adaptations made previously. A good example of a cycling-specific explosive exercise is to warm up for 10 minutes on a stationary bike in the gym. Follow this with five repetitions of the following: Cycle for 30 seconds against a high resistance at a low cadence (60 – 70 rpm) Follow this with 20 explosive step-ups on a 40 cm box Complete the step-ups on your right leg before moving to the left Recover for 2 minutes and then repeat Cool down for 10 minutes It is important to remember that, just like your endurance training, your strength training should be individually tailored to your individual strength level. The load of your exercises can increase as your force capabilities improve. However, before you begin any strength training programme, it is advised that you learn how to perform the exercises correctly. Learning how to perform the exercises correctly with lighter loads, can prevent injury when heavier loads are used later. Consult a qualified strength and conditioning specialist at the Sports Science Institute of SA or a similar practice to assist you. About the author:Benoit Capostagno completed his BSc degree (cum laude) specialising in the Sport Sciences at the University of Stellenbosch in 2006. He continued his studies at the University of Cape Town’s Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine completing his honours with a first class pass in 2007. He is continuing his postgraduate work with his PhD at this same unit and is investigating training adaptation and fatigue in cyclists. He has been a consultant with the Sports Science Institute of South Africa’s High Performance Centre’s Cycling Division since 2009. In addition, Ben has been an active cycling coach with Science to Sport since 2010.
  10. The benefits of strength training on endurance performance have long been debated. Previously strength training was thought to negatively affect endurance performance due to increases in muscle mass and the feeling of tired or heavy legs. However, recent research has shown that it is possible to improve endurance performance by incorporating well-structured strength training as part of your preparations. In this article we will explain the proposed benefits of strength training as well as provide some guidelines on what to look for in a strength training programme. Click here to view the article
  11. A very important, but often neglected area of training for endurance athletes is strength-work. In light of this - the Discovery High Performance Centre of the SSISA will be hosting a workshop specifically geared at strength training for endurance performance. Click here to view the article
  12. This informative workshop will take place at the SSISA’s conference centre, Boundary Rd Newlands on Tuesday 26 August, 17h30 for 18h00 and will discuss the benefits of strength training for runners, cyclists and triathletes. The workshop will be no longer than 90 minutes and entrance fee is R65 pp. Presentations from exercise physiologists, Benoit Capostagno and Dr Michael Posthumus promise to provide highly relevant advice to assist all levels of endurance athletes improve their performance. The evening will also include the latest information on the newly developed Grucox eccentric cycling ergometer, which can provide a unique training stimulus for endurance athletes. Tickets are available on https://event.in2eve...za/ssisas-event. With limited seats available and great lucky draw prizes up for grabs - be sure to secure your place now!
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