First off: thank you for the compliment
Second: I am a keyboard activist and know very little . (kidding, I have a masters in the art of camouflaging the crap I speak so that it looks like I know what I am talking about ).
Ok, left field question: has this painful foot sole started one day out of the blue and perhaps more or less the same time you bought some nicely branded socks by any chance? I don't know what it is but certain sock manufacturers, I can mention quite a few, has the tendency to make my feet feel like they're on fire. During the one race back in the day I had to stop next to the road just to get some relief.
To answer your questions:
1) Will the caged pedal (pics attached) provide better foot support to prevent the pain underfoot - nope, it did not help for me, I had that exact same pedal
2) Are the actual shoes packing up - nope, my first pair lasted close to 8 year before I finally threw them away. All the velcro straps tore out the shoe (cheap Olympics) but at that point I only used it on the trainer so did not mind too much.
One of my current pairs (first ascent) is also close to 6 years old, possibly older